Hello and welcome to ExamPundit. Here is a set of English Quiz especially crafted for IBPS Clerk 2015.
Directions (Q. 1-5): Read the passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
Sloths are not exactly renowned for their energetic lifestyles, but the three-toed version of the animal takes lethargy to a whole new level. Unlike its two-toed relative, which forages widely if slowly across the tree tops, it lives out its life in as little as 3,000 square metres. It has the slowest digestive rate of any mammal, and about half the metabolic rate typical for its mass – for it maintains a low body temperature even when allegedly active. Once a week, however, it takes a gamble. It climbs slowly down from the canopy, makes a small hole in the ground, and defecates. This is hazardous. Being caught on the ground by a predator such as a coyote or a feral dog is the leading cause of death amongst sloths. And even if it avoids being eaten, the trip consumes 8% of its daily energy budget. Given that twotoed sloths happily relieve themselves from the safety of the canopy, the three-toed’s fastidious lavatorial habits are puzzling. But a study published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, by Jonathan Pauli of the University of Wisconsin-Madison and his colleagues, not only seems to solve the mystery, but also sheds light on one of the most intriguing cases of mutualism in the animal kingdom. The actors in this drama are the sloths themselves, the algae and fungi that live in their fur (and which give sloths their dilapidated, green appearance) and a peculiar species of moth that lives in this mobile ecosystem. Sloths rely on the algae for part of their food, for these primitive plants (whose combined mass is about 2 %½ of the sloths’s body weight) are far richer in fats than the leaves which form the bulk of the animal’s diet. When a sloth grooms itself, it is therefore also feeding. Indeed, the nutrition the algae provide may be the difference between life and death, for several studies suggest that even when lazily grazing the canopy, a three-toed sloth expends more energy than it takes in from the leaves it is consuming. The algae, for their part, rely on the sloth for shelter. The strands of its fur have special cracks which trap rainwater and provide an ideal environment for them. But the algae also rely on the fungi and the moths–for when the moths die, the fungi decompose them, and in doing so release nitrogen-rich compounds which fertilise the algae. The moths, however, though they mate in the sloth’s fur, do not spend their whole lives there. And this, Dr Pauli found, is where the animal’s weekly visits to the ground come in.
1. How is fungi beneficial for algae? Give your answer in the context of the passage.
1) Fungi provide shelter for algae.
2) Algae absorb some nutrients from fungi.
3) Fungi decompose dead moths and produce nitrogenous fertilisers, which are useful for algae.
4) Fungi provide suitable environment for the growth of algae.
5) All the above.
2. Which of the following is/are fatal in the life of three-toed sloths?
1) Consumption of a lot of energy in the process of climbing down the canopy and back
2) The strange practice of defecation
3) The slowest rate of digestion
4) The slow metabolic rate
5) All the above
3. Which of the following statements is contrary to the facts mentioned in the given passage?
(A) The two-toed version of sloth shows more lethargy than its three-toed version.
(B) Three-toed sloths can spend their whole lives within an area of 0.003 square kilometres.
(C) Three-toed sloths have low body temperature.
1) All (A), (B) and (C)
2) Only (B)
3) Only (A)
4) Only (A) and (B)
5) None of these
4. Which of the following is the subject matter of the study published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society?
5) Not mentioned in the passage
5. Which of the following is not true according to the given passage?
1) Algae provide green colour to sloths.
2) The living algae and fungi in the fur of the sloths is a perfect example of mobile ecosystem.
3) For sloths, algae is a better source of fats than the leaves which form a major part of their diet.
4) The fur of the sloth provides an ideal environment for algae.
5) The relation between fungi and moth is a perfect example of parasitism.
Directions (Q. 6-10): Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical or idiomatic error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. The number of that part is the answer. If there is ‘No error’, the answer is 5). (Ignore errors of punctuation, if any.)
6. 1) The communities that are in the margin / 2) of society will have to / 3) struggle hard by displaying their / 4) politics of the presence. / 5) No error
7. 1) The transgender community / 2) has been remaining / 3) a part of Indian society / 4) from historic time. / 5) No error
8. 1) Often described as an engineering marvel, / 2) the 11.21-kilometre-long Qazigund-Banihal tunnel / 3) is Asia’s second longest, / 4) piercing in the Pir Panjal range. / 5) No error
9. 1) One of the major problems / 2) with representative democracy is that / 3) the business of government has become / 4) the privilege of the few. / 5) No error
10. 1) Paradoxically, economic paradigm founded on the logic of market sentiments / 2) that drove the Western economies to the brink of disaster / 3) has now become the economic rationale / 4) for the basis of economic recovery. / 5) No error